What To Do in A Medical Emergency – First Aid

Mouth-to-Mouth Resuscitation

Mouth-to-Mouth-and-Nose Resuscitation on a Child Under Age 8 or on an Infant

  • Place the child on a hard, flat surface.
  • Look into the mouth and throat to ensure that the airway is clear. If an object is present, try to sweep it out with your fingers. If unsuccessful and the object is blocking the airway, apply the Heimlich maneuver. If vomiting occurs, turn the child onto his or her side and sweep out the mouth with two fingers.
  • Tilt the head back slightly to open the airway.
  • Place your mouth tightly over the nose and mouth. Blow two quick, shallow breaths (smaller breaths than you would give to an adult). Watch for the chest to rise.
  • Remove your mouth. Look for the chest to fall as the child exhales.
  • Listen for the sounds of breathing. Feel for the child’’s breath on your cheek. If breathing does not start on its own, repeat the procedure.

Mouth-to-Mouth Resuscitation on a Child Age 8 or Older or on an Adult

1. Make sure the person is lying on a hard, flat surface. Look into the mouth and throat to ensure that the airway is clear. If an object is present, try to sweep it out with your fingers (wear disposable surgical gloves if they are available). Apply the Heimlich maneuver if unsuccessful and the object is blocking the airway. If vomiting occurs, turn the person on his or her side and sweep out the mouth with two fingers. Do not place your finger in the mouth if the person is rigid or is having a seizure.2. Tilt the head back slightly to open the airway. Put upward pressure on the jaw to pull it forward.
3. Pinch the nostrils closed with thumb and index finger. Place your mouth tightly over the person’’s mouth. Use a mouthpiece if one is available. Blow two quick breaths and watch for the person’’s chest to rise.

4. Release the nostrils. Look for the person’’s chest to fall as he or she exhales. Listen for the sounds of breathing. Feel for the person’’s breath on your cheek. If the person does not start breathing on his or her own, repeat the procedure.Emergencies and First Aid – Removing a Stuck Ring

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Removing a Stuck Ring

1 Pass an end of the fine string or dental floss under the ring. With the other end, begin tightly wrapping the string around the finger. Ensure that the string is wrapped evenly and smoothly past the lower knuckle.

2 With the end that was passed under the ring, begin unwrapping the string in the same direction. The ring should move over the string as the string is unwrapped. If the ring cannot be removed, unwrap the string and immediately seek urgent care.

Emergencies and First Aid – Choking

A person who is choking will instinctively grab at the throat. The person also may panic, gasp for breath, turn blue, or be unconscious. If the person can cough or speak, he or she is getting air. Nothing should be done.

Immediate care
If the person cannot cough or speak, begin the Heimlich maneuver immediately to dislodge the object blocking the windpipe. The Heimlich maneuver creates an artificial cough by forcing the diaphragm up toward the lungs.

If you are choking and alone, you can perform the Heimlich maneuver on yourself by giving yourself abdominal thrusts. Or position yourself over the back of a chair or against a railing or counter and press forcefully enough into it so that the thrust dislodges the object.

Emergencies and First Aid – Medical Identification Tags

A person with a serious medical condition such as diabetes, a drug allergy, or a heart condition should carry information about the condition on a necklace or bracelet, or on a card that can be carried in a pocket or wallet, so that proper care can be given in an emergency.

Be sure to check for a medallion or card if you find yourself in the role of rescuer. If you or a member of your family has a life-threatening medical condition, obtain a medical identification tag or medallion from your local pharmacy and wear it at all times.

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Emergencies and First Aid – Emergency Phone Numbers

Write down important telephone numbers and post them where you can refer to them easily, such as near your telephone or on your refrigerator.

List the serious medical conditions (such as asthma or diabetes) of each family member on the back of the list. Teach your children how to call 911 and tell them to show the list to emergency medical personnel.

The list should include the phone numbers of the police, the nearest fire department, ambulance services, a poison control center, and your doctors and the contact numbers for work, other locations, and a nearby relative or friend. You may also wish to include the phone numbers of the gas and electric companies, your children’s schools, the local pharmacy, or home health aides.

Emergencies and First Aid – Birth of the Placenta.

The placenta, which has provided the fetus with nourishment, is attached to the umbilical cord and is delivered about 20 minutes after the baby. Do not pull on the cord; delivery of the placenta occurs on its own. You can help by gently massaging the woman’s lower abdomen. The uterus will feel like a hard round mass.

Massaging the abdomen helps the uterus contract, which also helps stop bleeding. After the placenta is delivered, place it in a plastic bag to take with the woman and baby to the hospital.

It is normal for more bleeding to occur after delivery of the placenta. Continue gently massaging the woman’s lower abdomen.

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Emergencies and First Aid – Direct Pressure to Stop Bleeding.

A wound that is deep, bleeding heavily, or has blood spurting from it (caused by bleeding from an artery), may not clot and may not stop bleeding.

Immediate care

Call out for someone to get help, or call 911 yourself. Elevate the wound and apply direct pressure.

1. Elevate the wound above the heart and apply firm pressure with a clean compress (such as a clean, heavy gauze pad, washcloth, T-shirt, or sock) directly on the wound. Call out for someone to get help, or call 911 yourself.

Do not remove a pad that is soaked through with blood; you will disturb any blood clots that have started to form to help stop the bleeding. If blood soaks through, place another pad on top of the soaked one and continue applying direct pressure.

2. When the bleeding slows or stops, tie the pad firmly in place with gauze strips, a necktie, strips of sheet, or a shoelace. Do not tie so tightly that blood flow to the rest of the limb is cut off. Stay with the person and keep the wound elevated until medical help arrives.

Pressure Points for Severe Bleeding

If severe bleeding does not stop with direct pressure and elevation, apply direct pressure to an artery. Use direct pressure on an artery along with elevation and direct pressure on the wound. There are specific major arteries in the body where pressure should be placed (see illustration below).

 

When you apply pressure to an artery, you stop bleeding by pushing the artery against bone. Press down firmly on the artery between the bleeding site and the heart. If there is severe bleeding, also apply firm pressure directly to the bleeding site.

To check if bleeding has stopped, release your fingers slowly from the pressure point, but do not release pressure at the bleeding site. If bleeding continues, continue to apply pressure to the artery.

 

Continue until the bleeding stops or until help arrives. After bleeding stops, do not continue to apply pressure
to an artery for longer than 5 minutes.

Source(S): www.health.harvard.edu

by Meryl M