Glossary

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Adrenal Glands
Are responsible for many processes in the body. When functioning correctly, they produce various hormones that trigger chemical activity in every system.
Allergy
Is the overreaction of the body’s defense mechanism to something that’s usually harmless; the most common reactions include sneezing, watery eyes, itchy rashes and swelling of the lips and tongue. The allergen, or substance that causes the reaction, usually contains a protein – that is, the part of a living organism that includes hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. There are non-protein allergens (including penicillin and other prescription drugs), which cause an allergic response once they bind with protein in your body.
Alternative Medicine
Therapeutic practices, which are not currently, considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some, such as physical therapy, diet, and acupuncture, become widely accepted whereas others, such as humors or radium therapy, quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes.
Amino acids
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and have many functions in the body.
Anti-inflammatory
Is caused by the overproduction of free radicals in a specific area of the body. We now know that antioxidants work together to defeat free radicals and inhibit the biological pathway that triggers inflammation, and FlavayT.
Antioxidants
Compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species. An imbalance between antioxidants and reactive oxygen species results in oxidative stress, leading to cellular damage. Oxidative stress has been linked to cancer, aging, arteriosclerosis, ischemic injury, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s). The recognized dietary antioxidants are vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids.
Anxiety
It helps prepare our body for action, make us more alert, ready to fight or flee from any imminent threat to our survival – this is related to the direct anxiety symptoms such as fast heartbeat, fast breathing, being jittery and on edge, trembling etc. We can go from being totally relaxed to totally tense in an instant (related to panic). It causes us to plan ahead for any potential dangers and how we may deal with them – an excellent survival strategy (it’s better to deal with a danger or avoid it before we get in the situation) but an unfortunate effect of this is that we can get anxious / nervous just thinking about situations – a main ingredient in the causes of anxiety disorders – related to symptoms such as persistent negative thoughts and excessive worrying.
Ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid is necessary for many aspects of our biochemical functioning. It cannot be produced within the human body and must be obtained through an outside source. Obtain this nutrient in our diet.
Assimilation
Absorption
Autonomic reflexes
Autonomic reflexes are not subject to conscious control, are mediated by the autonomic division of the nervous system, and usually involve the activation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.

B vitamins
B-complex vitamins are actually a group of eight vitamins, which include thiamine (B1),riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B9), cyanocobalamin (B12), pantothenic acid and biotin. These vitamins are essential for: the breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose (this provides energy for the body), the breakdown of fats and proteins (which aids the normal functioning of the nervous system), muscle tone in the stomach and intestinal tract, skin, hair, eyes, mouth and liver.
Beanie hydrochloride
An acidic form of betaine.
Beta Carotene
A vitamin-like substance found in grains and other foods, it plays an important role in the health of the cardiovascular system.
Beta-carotene
A powerful antioxidant is natural food substance found in red, yellow and orange fruit and vegetables.
Biochemical
Chemical substance produced by a living organism, or such a substance produced synthetically. Have or relating to biochemistry; involving chemical processes in living organisms.
Biochemistry
The study of life on a molecular level. Chemistry of life. Common language of the biological sciences. Structure-function relationship (implications in many spheres of life).
Bioflavonoids
Flavonoids are compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and certain beverages that have diverse beneficial biochemical and antioxidant effects. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds, which are present in fruits, vegetables and beverages (tea, coffee, beer, wine and fruit drinks). Flavonoids contribute along with antioxidant vitamins and enzymes, to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body.
Bromelain
A collection of protein-digesting enzymes found in the stems of the pineapple plant, it contributes to the digestion of protein and is a digestive aid. Bromelain is a natural blood thinner; it prevents excessive blood platelet stickiness. Additionally, it can reduce the thickness of mucus, which may benefit people with asthma.

C.N.H.P.
Certified Natural Health Professional
Calcium
An element essential for the normal development and functioning of the body. Calcium is an important constituent of bones and teeth and is essential for many metabolic processes, including nerve function, muscle contraction and blood clotting.
Carbohydrates
Primarily starches are long chains of glucose molecules. These large glucose molecules are also known as polysaccharides, which can be composed of various numbers of monosaccharides and disaccharides. Complex carbohydrates are polymers of simple sugars (monosaccharides) that are branched and may contain lipid or protein groups.
Chlorella
Chlorella is a green single-celled algae cultivated in fresh water ponds. It has a grass-like smell because the high amounts of chlorophyll in it, the highest concentration of any plant in the world. It has existed on the plant for billions of years and was one of the first foods to appear. Fossils of Chlorella have been found dating back 3 billion years. Chlorella is one of the healthiest, most potent foods in existence.
Cholesterol
Waxy fatlike substance found in every cell, but concentrated in the brain, liver, and blood. Essential to the body, cholesterol helps form cell walls and protective sheaths around nerves, aids in hormone production, and supports digestion. It is present in all foods derived from animal sources, but not in those that are plant-based.
Collagen
Acts as scaffolding for our bodies. Controls cell shape and differentiation. It’s why broken bones regenerate and wounds heal. The Collagen mesh provides the blueprint, the road map and the way. Collagen is the fibrous protein constituent of skin, cartilage, bone, and other connective tissue.

Detox
Techniques designed to assist the body in removing the buildup of potentially harmful chemicals and toxins.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Docosahexaenoic acid is the primary structural component of brain tissue. Research is increasingly recognizing the possibility that DHA has a crucial influence on neurotransmitters in the brain, helping brain cells better communicate with each other.
Dietary Fiber
Is made up of soluble and insoluble fiber. Compounds that dissolve or swell when put into water are called soluble fibers and include pectin’s, gums, mucilages, and some hemicelluloses. Insoluble fiber differs from starch because the chemical bonds that join individual sugar units cannot be digested by enzymes in the human gastrointestinal tract. Insoluble fiber is considered a “noncarbohydrate carbohydrate” since the components that make up insoluble fiber are lignins, cellulose, and hemicelluloses.
Diuretic
An agent that increases the amount of urine excreted.

Essential fatty acids (EFA)
Our bodies cannot produce EFAs, they must be sourced from outside (from food or supplements). Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) – are the building bricks of our health, they are involved with producing life energy in our bodies from food substances, and moving that energy throughout our systems. They govern growth, vitality, and mental state. They hook up oxygen, electron transport, and energy in the process of oxidation. Oxidation, the central and most important moment-to-moment living process in our body, is the `burning’ of food to produce the energy required for life processes.” EFAs are also important in oxygen transfer, hemoglobin production, and control of nutrients through cell membranes. They markedly shorten recovery time from fatigue. EFAs are also key in preventing damage from hard fats. EFAs are anti-sticky and tend to disperse them.
Elecampane
A tall coarse Eurasian herb having daisy like yellow flowers with narrow petals whose rhizomatous roots are used medicinally. Traditionally used to treat coughs, particularly those associated with bronchitis, asthma, and whooping cough. Also, been used historically to treat poor digestion and general complaints of the intestinal tract.
Enzymes
Enzymes are complex molecules produced in living organisms to speed up chemical reactions within the cell.

Fat
Fat is a major source of calories or energy. Fat improves the taste and odor of foods and gives a feeling of fullness. Fats form the structures in our bodies, including muscles, nerves, membranes and blood vessels and are essential for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K in the body. Although some fat in the diet is necessary, too much fat can lead to heart disease, obesity and other health problems. There are three kinds of fat: saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Fats in the diet may be of animal (saturated) or vegetable (unsaturated) origin. Examples of fat in the diet are gravy, bacon, margarine, butter, cream, salad dressings and nuts. Meats and some milk products also contain significant amounts of fat. The guidelines recommended by the American Heart Association and the Surgeon General’s Office suggest that fat should contribute no more than 30% of total calories. For those adults with heart disease a diet of 20 percent or even 10 percent of calories from fat is advised. The fat we eat is saturated and unsaturated. These terms refer to the chemical structure of the fat molecules. A low total fat intake, with the majority of fat from unsaturated sources, appears to lower blood cholesterol levels. Too much of any of these fats will increase dietary fat intake, and excess body fat may increase cholesterol levels and the potential to increase body fat.
Fat Trans
An unhealthy substance, also known as trans fatty acid, made through the chemical process of hydrogenation of oils. Hydrogenation solidifies liquid oils and increases the shelf life and the flavor stability of oils and foods that contain them. Trans fat is found in vegetable shortenings and in some margarines, crackers, cookies, snack foods and other foods. Trans fats are also found in abundance in “French fries.” To make vegetable oils suitable for deep frying, the oils are subjected to hydrogenation, which creates trans fats. Among the hazards of fast food, “fries” are prime in purveying trans fats. Trans fats wreak havoc with the body’s ability to regulate cholesterol. In the hierarchy of fats, the polyunsaturated fats, which are found in vegetables, are the good kind; they lower your cholesterol. Saturated fats have been condemned as the bad kind. But trans fats are far worse. They drive up the LDL (“bad”) cholesterol. which markedly increases the risk of coronary artery heart disease and stroke. According to a recent study of some 80,000 women, for every 5% increase in the amount of saturated fat a woman consumes, her risk of heart disease increases by 17%. But only a 2% increase in trans fats will increase her risk of heart disease by 93%.
Fish oil
Oil obtained from fish. Predominant fatty acids found in fatty fish and fish oils are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The most beneficial and active of these fatty acids are EPA and DHA. Alpha-linolenic acid can be converted to EPA and DHA in the body.
Flavonoids
Flavonoids are compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and certain beverages that have diverse beneficial biochemical and antioxidant effects. Their dietary intake is quite high compared to other dietary antioxidants like vitamins C and E. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids depends on their molecular structure, and structural characteristics of certain flavonoids found in hops and beer confer surprisingly potent antioxidant activity exceeding that of red wine, tea, or soy. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds. Over 4,000 flavonoids have been identified, many of which occur in fruits, vegetables and beverages (tea, coffee, beer, wine and fruit drinks). Antioxidant activities. Flavonoids may help provide protection against these diseases by contributing, along with antioxidant vitamins and enzymes, to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body.
Flax seed oil
Oil from flaxseed. Flaxseed oil is heart-healthy because it contains alpha-linolenic acid.
Free radical
Atoms or molecules with an unpaired electron. Formation of free radicals is a normal oxidation process in foods and are formed during food treatments such as toasting, frying, freeze-drying, and irradiation. They are generally very reactive, unstable structures that continuously react with substances to form stable products.

Glycemic index
The glycemic index (GI) is a ranking of foods on a scale from 0 to 100 according to the extent to which they raise blood sugar levels after eating. Glucose is given a relative number of 100 to provide a baseline to which all others can be compared. For example, an apple has a glycemic index of 38 which is less than half that of glucose, but higher than soybeans (which have a glycemic index of 18). Other common foods and their corresponding glycemic indices are Corn Flakes (84), dark rye bread (80), and bananas (54).
GMO
Genetically Modified Organism generally refer to living organisms, at all levels, where portions of the DNA from one organism is generally introduced into and made part of the DNA of another organism, for instance, to confer resistance to a specific organism or chemical.
Grapeseed
As its name implies, grape seed extract is derived from the small seeds (and occasionally the skins) of red grapes–the same kind that are pressed to make wine. Used extensively in Europe, grape seed extract is rich in flavonoids, phytochemicals that have antioxidant properties some consider even greater than the old standbys vitamin C and vitamin E. Antioxidants are believed to prevent and control numerous ailments by safeguarding cells against the ravages of unstable oxygen molecules called free radicals.
Green tea extract
Extract from green tea. An antioxidant.
Guarana seed extract
A small bean that grows predominantly in South America, especially in the Amazon jungle. Guarana Extract can be used to increase mental alertness, fight fatigue, and increase stamina and physical endurance.

Histamines
“Mast” cells that line your mucous membranes during an allergy attack are inflammatory.
Hypoallergenic
Products formulated to contain the fewest possible allergens. Not likely to cause an allergic reaction.

Immune system
It is designed to defend you against millions of bacteria, microbes, viruses, toxins and parasites that would love to invade your body. To understand the power of the immune system, all that you have to do is look at what happens to anything once it dies. That sounds gross, but it does show you something very important about your immune system. When something dies, its immune system (along with everything else) shuts down. In a matter of hours, the body is invaded by all sorts of bacteria, microbes, parasites… None of these things are able to get in when your immune system is working, but the moment your immune system stops the door is wide open. Once you die it only takes a few weeks for these organisms to completely dismantle your body and carry it away, until all that’s left is a skeleton. Obviously your immune system is doing something amazing to keep all of that dismantling from happening when you are alive.
Iron
A trace mineral, supplies energy to every cell in the body. It is a key component of hemoglobin, the blood’s oxygen-carrying pigment. Iron is also found in myoglobin, which supplies oxygen to muscles, and in compounds that keep the immune system strong. This mineral is critical to sharp mental functioning. Even slight deficiencies in iron can shorten attention span and make concentration difficult.

Kelp
Large seaweeds, belonging to the brown algae family.

Licorice
This perennial herb is from the GLYCYRRICEAE family. This plant grows to a height of seven feet, and is a powerful medicinal agent. The roots of this herb are used medicinally as they contain compounds, which work on the body’s endocrine system, liver and other body organs. The two active components of this herb are triterpenes and glycyrrhizin. It contains vitamins B complex, and E.
Linolenic acid (LA)
An omega-6 fatty acid important to human health.
Low glycemic
Low GI means a smaller rise in blood glucose levels after meals. Low GI diets can help people lose weight. Low GI diets can improve the body’s sensitivity to insulin. Low GI can improve diabetes control. Low GI foods keep you fuller for longer. Low GI can prolong physical endurance.

Magnesium
An essential element, which influences many enzymes, needed to produce cellular energy and nerve and muscle message transmission. It affects nervous, muscular and cardiovascular systems. Magnesium is found mainly in bone, also in muscle and Other tissues: deficiency can lead to neuromuscular and central nervous system irritability, muscle twitches and weakness.
Meal replacement
They are high protein, moderate calorie shakes that are great when you’re short on time and need to get in a quick, nutritious meal.
Molybdenum
A lead, ore, molybdenite, altered, lead, galena silver-white metallic chemical element used in alloys, windings for electrical resistance furnaces, points for spark plugs.

Naturopathy
Is an American healthcare profession. It was founded in the US as a formal healthcare system at the turn of the 20th century by medical practitioners from various natural therapeutic disciplines. By the early 1900s, more than 20 naturopathic medical schools existed, and naturopathic physicians were licensed in most States. Today there are more than 1,000 licensed naturopathic doctors in the US. As practiced today, naturopathic medicine integrates traditional natural therapeutics — including botanical medicine, clinical nutrition, homeopathy, acupuncture, traditional oriental medicine, hydrotherapy, and naturopathic manipulative therapy — with modern scientific medical diagnostic science and standards of care. The medical research base of naturopathic practice consists of empirical documentation of treatments using case history observations, medical records, and summaries of practitioners’ clinical experiences.
Niacin
Also known as vitamin B3, niacin has earned a reputation (in supplement form) as a natural cholesterol-lowering agent that often rivals prescription drugs in mild to moderate cases. It may also help to prevent or treat a number of other disorders, from arthritis and depression to diabetes. Three forms of niacin supplements–each with a specific therapeutic role–are commercially available: nicotinic acid (also called nicotinate), niacinamide and inositol hexaniacinate, a compound of niacin and inositol (another B-family vitamin).
Nutriceutical
It is a food that provides the body with the proper nutrition so it can heal itself. The self-healing capabilities of the human body are astounding, however, we often do not given it the proper amino acids, enzymes, vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates that it needs.
Nutrients
Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. These are provided by food and are necessary for growth and the maintenance of life.
Nutritionist
A person has had extensive education and training in nutrition science, and has met national testing standards. Both C.N.s, and C.C.N.s work with clients to assess and analyze individual nutritional needs and develop personalized nutrition plans. During this process, they educate, advise, counsel, monitor, and provide support. Both conventional doctors and alternative health practitioners often refer their patients to nutritionists for dietary counseling.

Omega fats
Omega-3 fats are found in both plant and marine foods and have been found to reduce the risk of heart disease. Food sources include canola and soy oils and canola based margarines. Marine sources include fish especially oily fish such as Atlantic salmon, mackerel, Southern blue fin tuna, trevally and sardines. Omega-6 fats are found primarily in nuts, seeds and plant oils such as corn, soy and safflower.
Ox Bile
Salts were one of the main remedies of the early Naturopaths. They found that these would help the digestion and help to flush the liver and gallbladder harmlessly. They have fallen out of favor and new discoveries were made but still nothing was developed that really did what the bile salts did.
Oxidants
A substance that oxidizes another substance.

Pancreatin
A digestive enzyme that comes from the pancreas of pigs, to treat chronic pancreatitis, a fairly uncommon condition in which the enzyme production in the pancreas steadily declines.
Pantothenic acid
A water-soluble B complex vitamin that plays a major role in cellular metabolism and is synthesized by the bacterial flora in the intestinal tract. It functions as a coenzyme that participates in the release of energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and in the utilization of riboflavin.
Papain
Papain is a protein-cleaving enzyme derived from papaya and certain other plants. Papain has a mild, soothing effect on the stomach and aids in protein digestion. It is most often used as a meat tenderizer.
Pepsin
A digestive enzyme.
Phenolic compounds
Highly complex, deeply controversial compounds that exist in every plant. Some are known to be carcinogenic (the safrole in sassafras, for example). Some, like the QUERCITIN in green beans and rhubarb, are thought to be mutagenic (capable of causing mutations in living cells). And some are clearly toxic (the coumarin in cabbage, radishes and spinach). Among the phenols are tannins (present in high doses in coffee, tea, red wine, beer, persimmons and other commonly eaten foods as well as in such herbal teas as bayberry, blackberry, comfrey and maté), which can bind PROTEIN and damage the liver. Other phenols include many plant pigments and natural ANTIOXIDANTS, some of which are known to reduce the risk of certain cancers.
Phytonutrients
Naturally-occurring compounds that contribute to the flavor, color, and disease resistance in plants (fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes); what plants make primarily to defend themselves; most are antioxidants. Benefits include enhancing immunity, strengthening of the heart and blood vessels, and tumor prevention.
Potassium
Potassium is the principal cation (positively charged ion) in intracellular fluid and is of primary importance in its maintenance. Proper balance of potassium, calcium and magnesium ions are essential for the normal function of muscles.
Probiotics
“Good guys” bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum) help keep disease-causing bacteria in check. They’re known as probiotics because they help maintain a normal balance of beneficial bacteria in the intestine. They also help keep the immune system working well and assist in your system’s effort to manufacture vitamins, fortify resistance to cancer, help control cholesterol, and promote good digestion.
Prostaglandin
Potent hormone-like substance found in many bodily tissues (and especially in semen); produced in response to trauma and may affect blood pressure and metabolism and smooth muscle activity.
Protein
One of the body’s nutrients that build and repairs tissues. Protein is made of amino acids and can be categorized as complete and incomplete.

Saturated fat
All animal fats, such as those in meat, poultry, and dairy products. Processed and fast foods are also saturated. Vegetable oils also can be saturated. Palm, palm kernel and coconut oils are saturated vegetable oils. (Fats containing mostly unsaturated fat can be made more saturated through a process called “hydrogenation.” See the definition for hydrogenated/partially hydrogenated.”) Saturated fats are the very unhealthy fats. They make the body produce more cholesterol, which may raise blood cholesterol levels. Excess saturated fat is related to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cholesterol found in foods is not as important as the amount of saturated fat. Of all the fats, saturated fat is the most potent determinant of blood cholesterol levels. Saturated fats stimulates the production of LDL cholesterol (“bad” cholesterol) and therefore increases blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease. Saturated fats raise cholesterol levels and LDL-cholesterol levels more than dietary cholesterol itself.
Schisandra
Schisandra is a woody vine with numerous clusters of tiny, bright red berries. It is distributed throughout northern and northeast China and the adjacent regions of Russia and Korea. Schisandra has been used for increasing the body’s resistance to stress, stimulating the immune system, increasing stamina, and decreasing fatigue. It has also been used as a liver protectant.
Selenium
Selenium is a trace mineral that is essential to good health but required only in small amounts. Selenium is incorporated into proteins to make selenoproteins, which are important antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant properties of selenoproteins help prevent cellular damage from free radicals.
Serotonin
Serotonin is the brain chemical associated with sleep, mood, locomotion, feeding and anxiety. While other cells outside the brain such as blood platelets and some intestinal lining cells make and/or use serotonin, all serotonin used by brain cells must be made within the neurons themselves. When serotonin is not properly constructed within the brain, the result can be irritability, aggression, impatience, anxiety and depression.
Sodium
Is a mineral. The main dietary source of sodium is common table salt (sodium chloride), which is 40% sodium and 60 chlorides, but regular unprocessed foods contain natural sodium as well. Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk and cheese contribute sodium.
Stimulants
Are drugs which increase the function of the central nervous system, (CNS), which increases energy level, alertness, and physical activity.
Sulfur
It’s a tasteless, light yellow nonmetallic element with a distinct odor when exposed to water. Sulfur is yellow in color and similar to oxygen in its chemical behavior. Sulfur burns readily with a blue flame, which earned its name brimstone, or burning stone.
Supplements
Something added to make up for deficiency.
Synergetic
Working together; cooperating.

Trans fat
These fats are called hydrogenated fats. These are fats that are created when oils are “partially hydrogenated” The process of hydrogenation changes the chemical structure of unsaturated fats by adding hydrogen atoms to make the fats more saturated. Hydrogenation is what turns liquid oil into stick margarine or shortening. Manufacturers use this process to increase product stability and shelf life. Thus, a larger quantity can be produced at one time, saving the manufacturer money. Unfortunately, this money-saving process is what contributes to elevated blood cholesterol levels and increases heart disease risk.

Vascular
Small vessel, dim of or having vessels or ducts; designating or of the vessels, or system of vessels for conveying blood or lymph.
Vitamin A
Is a family of fat-soluble vitamins. Retinol is one of the most active, or usable, forms of vitamin A, and is found in animal foods such as liver and eggs and in some fortified food products.
Vitamin C
Vitamin C serves as a key immune system nutrient and a potent free-radical fighter. This double-duty nutrient has been shown to prevent many illnesses, from everyday ailments such as the common cold to devastating diseases such as cancer.
Vitamin E
Is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in eight different forms. Each form has its own biological activity, which is the measure of potency or functional use in the body. Alpha-tocopherol (á-tocopherol) is the name of the most active form of vitamin E in humans. It is also a powerful biological antioxidant. Vitamin E in supplements is usually sold as alpha-tocopheryl acetate, a form that protects its ability to function as an antioxidant. The synthetic form is labeled “D, L” while the natural form is labeled “D”. The synthetic form is only half as active as the natural form.

Wholistic health
Founded to provide consumers with professional, up-to-date guidance on the many options and benefits of integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) with conventional health care treatments.
Wildcrafted
A term used to describe the manner in which a botanical material is collected from its natural setting in the wild. Grown without cultivation, herbicides or fertilizers and harvested in an ecologically sustainable manner by taking efforts to minimize the disruptive impact on local growing conditions and ensuring the continued vitality of the plot for reproduction.

Zinc
Is found in every cell of the body, and it’s involved in more enzymatic reactions (more than 200) than any other mineral. For this reason, nutritionally oriented physicians have been using zinc for years to treat a variety of medical conditions, ranging from arthritis and Alzheimer’s to acne and the common cold.